Robert Q. Topper

Professor of Chemistry

History of Chemistry and ChemEng Departments

 The image to the right [30] was taken in 1979 and features faculty and alumni from the Chemical Engineering and Chemistry departments. Among the faculty pictured here are John Bove (Chemistry - first row on the right), Robert (Bob) Kapner (Chem Eng- first row, third from right), S.I. Cheng (Chem Eng - second row on the left), Zvi Kornblum (Chemistry - next to S.I.) and Julius Klerer (Chemistry - last row on the left). 

 

This photo of the Chemical Eng Class of 2015 also includes several faculty and staff. In the last row,  L to R: Prof. Charles Okorafor (now Chair of Chemical Eng), Prof. Ruben Savizky (Chemistry), Prof. Richard Stock (Chemical Eng), Prof. Robert Topper (Chemistry), Prof. Daniel Lepek (Chemical Eng), Cody Hirashima (student), Liz Leon (Secretary for Chemical Eng and Chemistry), Prof. Irv Brazinsky (Chemical Eng) and Mike Westbrook (Chemical Eng Technician). In the second row from the front, Prof. Andrea Newmark (Chair of Chemistry) is on the left side of the photo.

Perhaps no faculty member has left more of a mark on the Chemistry Department, or on Cooper Union, than Prof. John Bove'. In this image he is pictured in his office at 51 Astor Place, shortly before the building was demolished and the School of Engineering moved to its present home at 41 Cooper Square. Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering Bove' taught general, organic and analytical chemistry to generations of students, usually without the use of lecture notes. Bove' served from 1951 to 2011 (with a short break in the middle) and mentored countless research students and faculty members with wit and charm.

Professor Emeritus Irv Brazinsky (ChE 1958) is shown sharing his expertise in chemical thermodynamics with a student, with the Gibbs-Duhem equation displayed behind them. Brazinsky is an enthusiastic alumnus of Cooper Union. His leadership and character are admired and emulated by his students and his colleagues in the School of Engineering and the Chemical Engineering and Chemistry departments.

 First There Was Chemistry

Established in 1859 at the founding of Cooper Union, the Department of Chemistry is one of the oldest academic chemistry departments in New York City.[1] One of Cooper Union's most famous alumni, Thomas Edison, studied chemistry here in 1872.[8,23]  Like Edison, many students studied chemistry on a course-by-course or certificate basis before and after the first degree in Chemistry was established. Peter Cooper himself was no mean chemist, holding numerous patents in areas that we would consider chemical engineering - most notably, the manufacture of gelatin and glue.[18]

The first full three-year "evening science" course of study was offered in 1860 [15] and the first of the five-year graduates completed their program in 1864. Prof. Charles Stone was the first chemistry laboratory director. In 1870 Stone began organizing laboratory facilities "sufficient for chemistry instruction." [16]

Subsequently, the 24th Annual Report of the Trustees (1883) testifies that a diploma in Chemistry was approved by the Trustees in 1881.[14] This degree "represents a five years' attendance in the scientific classes of the Cooper Union associated with strict examination, or at least three years' attendance in the [Chemistry] Laboratory, after passing an admission examination..." and was meant to be an alternative to the "science" program, which was focused on engineering.[14] Those three years would have focused on a year each of general, organic and analytical chemistry.[21] Following that, in 1884 the 25th Annual Report [13] testifies to the existence of the "Cooper Union School of Chemistry (see image)." One student in particular - Robert S.Senger - was recognized by the Trustees as a "Graduate" in chemistry, having already completed the new Chemistry course requirements. This was because Senger has already completed significant work in chemistry by the time the diploma was approved. He therefore was the first person to be recognized as completing a course of study in chemistry at the Cooper Union.[13] In that same annual report, a person identified as "Miss Helen V.Blake," residing at "The Rockingham, Broadway and 56th St., New York" was listed in the roster of first-year students in the School of Chemistry. She appears to have been the first woman to study chemistry at the Cooper Union. [13]  

According to an earlier chronology [16], the "five-year diploma course in chemistry" was approved in 1883 and the first graduates of the "Night Chemical course" completed the program in 1888.[9]  However, we see above that the first graduate - Robert S. Senger - completed the degree in 1884 on the basis of his earlier work, and therefore he is clearly an important part of Cooper Union's history as its first graduated chemist.

Victor Bloede (a prominent Cooper Union "chemistry" alumnus) was also a very early student in the engineering school, completing his studies in 1867, before the Chemistry course had been created.[10] This was done with a very strong emphasis and training in chemistry.[21] The initial presence of a cadre of excellent chemistry students like Bloede was certainly a driving force for the subsequent creation of the Chemistry degree in 1883. As an aside, we note that one of the 1884 certificate recipients (Maximilian Toch) became a prominent chemist, eventually rejoined the Chemistry department as an adjunct faculty member in 1920, when he was appointed to help head up a new degree program in Industrial Chemistry (see below). [2] 

In summary: the Chemistry department was established in 1859 and the course in Chemistry began in 1881, with its first graduate completing the three-year course of study in 1884.   

Then there was Industrial Chemistry, and then Chemical Engineering

We can now proceed to what we know about the establishment of the chemical engineering degree. It is well known that the first degree program in chemical engineering in the United States was established in 1888 at MIT. [11]  However, chemical engineering did not come to Cooper Union as a degree program until later. The first "specialized" engineering programs at Cooper Union were established in 1900 in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering and were taught solely in the evening. In 1900, the Day School (more properly, the Free Day School of Technical Science, or "Day School") was created and in 1905 it gained approval from New York to offer four-year programs leading to a Bachelor of Science degree.[16]  The Chemistry degree continued to be offered as part of the "Night School" (more properly called the Free Night School of Science). The Night School also offered degrees in general science and electrical engineering, as well as a three-year course (sort of an asociates degree) in mechanical drawing.  

During the year 1920-1921, 888 students were enrolled in the Night School and 153 students were enrolled in the Day School. Within the Night School, 166 students were enrolled in the Chemistry course of study.[37] These numbers represented a return to Night School enrollment figures which dropped precipitously during World War I, but were a significant drop for the Day School's enrollment. This was attributed due to post-war economic hardships felt by many New Yorkers at that time which prevented many of them from seeking a free education during normal working hours.[37] 

That same year (1920), a new degree in Industrial Chemistry was announced to the press. [2] This program admitted 18 students in 1921[16,37], at the same time as 166 students were enrolled in the Chemistry course, and first appears in the 1921-1922 course catalogs. The Chemistry degree program has always focused on highly practical instruction, so the changes needed were minimal. However, this was clearly a transition period because during the same year, the Regents of New York State approved Cooper Union to offer B.Sc. degrees in civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering, and the Day School became the Cooper Union Institute of Technology. A few years later in 1923, the Chemical Engineering degree first appeared in the 1923-1924 course catalog, and in 1924 the Day School was renamed the "Institute of Technology."[38] In 1924 the Industrial Chemistry degree no longer appeared in the catalogs of either school, having been completely replaced by the Chemical Engineering degree. Thus, the Industrial Chemistry degree was "developed into" the Chemical Engineering degree at Cooper Union. "...there having been added the subjects of Mechanics, Hydraulics, Sanitary Engineering, Differential Equations, Electro-chemical Installations, and Economics." [16]  The 1935-1936 catalog states that the Chemistry degree offered as part of the Night School program was changed to Chemical Engineering a year later in 1925, but that date is contradicted by the 1924 Trustees report [38] as well as the 1925-1926 combined report [39], both of which identify the transition as having begun with the 1924-1925 term. The latter report states that a four-year course in Chemical Engineering is offered within the Institute of Technology (Day School) while a five-year course is offered within the Night School of Engineering.[40] 

As far as the department structure is concerned; until 1928 the Chemistry department was headed by Horace Byers, who was a Professor of Chemistry. The 1928-1929 catalog has a brief description of the Chemistry department and its capabilities. However, in the 1929-1930 catalog one sees that Byers had left Cooper Union and Albert B. Newman, Professor of Chemical Engineering, was the department head. The same departmental description was included but the catalog section was entitled "Chemical Engineering." This was also the first year that some of the department faculty members were designated as "Professor of Chemical Engineering" or "Instructor of Chemical Engineering." So, although the Chemistry department was established in 1859, the department became a Chemical Engineering department (nominally) in 1929. By 1939 the Department of Chemical Engineering faculty still consisted of a mix of chemists and chemical engineers as it prepared for accreditation by the AIChE.[16] The department continued to consist of both chemical engineers and chemists until 1972 (see below).

In short, the best evidence shows that the Chemical Engineering degree at Cooper Union was first established in 1924 (95 years ago as of 2019) and the name of the Chemistry department was changed to Chemical Engineering in 1929. The Cooper Union offered degrees in Chemistry/Applied Chemistry from 1883 to 1929 (a period of 46 years). The faculty of the new Chemical Engineering department consisted of both chemical engineers and chemists until 1972.  

The Present

During the 1970s, the departmental structures of the entire Cooper Union were disrupted in a series of controversial administrative decisions.[16,17] In 1972 all departments throughout Cooper Union were eliminated and in 1975, the Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics faculty were taken out of the School of Engineering and combined with the Humanities and Social Science faculty to form a new faculty of "Liberal Arts and Sciences."[17] Unlike the other departments, the faculty formerly in the Chemical Engineering department were now split up between the two schools.

Five years later (in 1979) following turmoil and controversy, the three math and science departments and the four engineering departments were reconstituted as departments and these were re-formed within the School of Engineering. [16]  Since most of these faculty remembered a time when they were all in the same department together for many decades, the chemists and chemical engineers resolved to continue to work together just the same - a close relationship that continues to this day. 

Notable and Prominent Alumni

The following is the beginning of a list of notable and prominent alumni who either (a) studied within the Cooper Union Chemistry or Chemical Engineering programs, or (b) studied in the general engineering or other programs with a strong or exclusive focus on chemistry.

Current Full-time Faculty: Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Departments

Chemistry Faculty: A Historical List

The following is an incomplete list of full-time faculty who have served the Chemistry Department in the past. Current faculty are not yet included in this list. Those who are known to be deceased are marked with an asterisk (*). Years of service follow each person's name in brackets, where this is known.

  • John L. Bove', currently Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Environmental Eng [1951-2011]. B.A., M.S. Bucknell Univ.; Ph.D. Case-Western Reserve University. (Served as Chair of Chemistry)
  • Horace G. Byers,* Professor of Chemistry (Served as Department Head during 1920s; joined CU sometime after WWI) (b.1872; d.1956) [2,6]
  • James Coull, Assistant Professor of Chemistry [1930s-]. B.Sc.; A.M.; Ph.D. (institutions unknown)
  • Henry Cornelius Enders* (Chemistry 19??). Associate Professor of Chemistry [early 20th c.-1920?]. (d. April 1, 1948). B.S. Cooper Union (Chemistry); M.S. Columbia University. [26]
  • Julius "Jack" Klerer*, Professor of Chemistry (b. 1928; d. 1996). B.A., M.S., Ph.D., New York University. Served as Acting Dean of the (now defunct) School of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Also worked at Bell Labs. [17,29,30]
  • Zvi C. Koren (formerly Kornblum), Professor of Chemistry [1977-1990]. B.S. Brooklyn College, Ph.D., City University of New York. Served as Chair of Chemistry.
  • Rebecca A. LaRue, Associate Professor of Chemistry. [19XX-2001]. Ph.D., Univ. of Cincinnati.
  • John C. Olsen*, Professor of Chemistry [?-1918]. Came to Cooper Union from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute; returned there in 1918 to "take charge of the newly created department of Chemical Engineering."[36] 
  • Clarence S. Sherman, Professor of Chemistry [prior to 1980...?]. Sc.B., Sc.M., Ph.D. (institutions unknown).[43]
  • Robert Spice*, Professor of Chemistry [1884-1914]. Served as Chair of Chemistry (1900-1914).[32] 
  • Charles S. Stone*, A.M., Professor of Chemistry and the first Cooper Union Chemistry Laboratory Director. [13]

Chemical Engineering Faculty: A Historical List

The following is an incomplete list of full-time faculty who have served the Chemical Engineering Department in the past, or who held a title as "Professor of Chemical Engineering." Current faculty are not yet included in this list. Those who are known to be deceased are marked with an asterisk (*). Years of service follow each person's name in brackets, where this is known.

  • Zikri Ahmed,* Professor of Chemical Engineering [1988-2008]; (19XX-2008). B.Sc., Cairo Univ.; M.S.,Ph.D., New Jersey Institute of Technology. [12] 
  • Milada Alberts, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering [1981-?]. M.S. Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague; Ph.D., Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences, Prague.  
  • Irving Brazinsky (Chem Eng 1958), currently Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering [1985 - ret. 2016]. B.Ch.E. Cooper Union (1958). M.S. Lehigh Univ., Sc.D. Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.  (Served as Chair of Chemical Engineering)
  • George T. Chang, Professor of Chemical Engineering [1968-1987]. B.Eng. National Taiwan University; Ph.D. Rice University  (1966). [28]  
  • Caleb K. Charny, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering [1989-1991]. B.S.,SUNY-Buffalo (1983); Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University (1988); M.D., New York University School of Medicine and New York Hospital Medical Center-Cornell Medical Center (2000).  
  • Shang-I Cheng, Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering [19XX-1992?]. B.S., National Chekiang Univ.; M.S., Ph.D. University of Florida. (Served as Chair of Chemical Engineering.)
  • Robert S. Kapner, Professor of Chemical Engineering. B.Ch.E. Polytechnic Institute of New York; M.S., University of Cincinnati; D.E., Johns Hopkins University.
  • Herbert Liebeskind,* Professor of Chemical Engineering [1945-1987] (d. April 1, 1996). B.S., New York University. [4]
  • Marca Lam (Anderson), Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering [1999-2006]. B. S., M.S., SUNY-Buffalo; Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Inst.  
  • Chongkit Laohaku, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering [1982-?]. B.Sc. University of Sydney; B.Sc. Imperial College; Ph.D. University of Cambridge. 
  • Albert Broadus Newman, Professor of Chemical Engineering [1929-?]. First head of the renamed Chemical Engineering department. Ph.D. (1928) Univ of Michigan. [33] 
  • J. Merriam Peterson, Professor of Chemical Engineering [prior to 1980...?]. B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (institutions unknown).
  • Arthur H. Radasch,* Professor of Chemical Engineering [1938-1963] (b. 1887; d. Feb 23, 1975). B.S. Mass. Inst. Tech. (1920). Previously taught at Alfred Univ. and worked at R&D dvision of Barrett Co. (1927-1938). Held patents on methods for coal-tar distillation. [7]
  • Allen L. Rakow, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering; B.Ch.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; M.Ch.E. Stevens Institute of Technology;  D.Sc. Washington University.
  • George Sidebotham, Professor of Mechanical Engineering; Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering [Chem E. 1989-2003; Mech E. 2003-present]. B.S. Trinity College; M.A., Ph.D. Princeton.  
  • Richard J. Stock, Professor of Chemical Eng [1994-ret. 2019]. Served as Chair of Chemical Eng and as Dean of Engineering. B. Sc. University of Nottingham, Ph.D. West Virginia University. 

Adjunct Faculty and Instructors in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: A Historical List
Although not full-time, the following faculty are known to have served as adjunct faculty for at least one year. Current adjunct faculty are not yet listed. 

  • Alfred R. Bayer,* Instructor in Chemistry. (b March 12, 1910; d. April 7, 2002). B.Ch.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.; M.S. (Chemistry), Lafayette College (1933). Chief Engineer, Brooklyn Union Gas Co., for 30+ years; consultant. Also taught at the University of Algiers (Algeria). [5]
  • G.V. Chandrashekhar, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry. B.Sc., M.Sc., Univ. of Mysore; Ph.D., Indian Institute of Technology. "Chandra" did important work on high-tempeature superconductor research during his time with IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center.
  • Temple Clayton, Instructor in Chemistry. B. Chem., Cornell Univ. (1935); M.S., Columbia (1941). Research chemist in the Steroid group of the Research division of Schedring Corp. (Bloomfield, NJ). Also taught at Newark College of Engineering (which is now called NJIT).[5,41]  
  • Donald W. Deed, Instructor in Chemical Engineering [5,42]. 
  • Henry B. Hope, Instructor of Analytical Chemistry. B.Ch.E., A.M. (institutions unknown) [3].
  • Raymond J. Kuntz, Instructor of Chemical Engineering [1930s]. B.S., Ch.E.[5]
  • Yanir Maidenberg (Chem Eng 2005), Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering. B.Ch.E. Cooper Union (2005); M.S., Ph.D., Columbia Univ.(2011,2013).
  • Albert Reis (Chem Eng 1977), Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering. B.Eng., Cooper Union (1977).[5]
  • James Rubenstone, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry.
  • Omar A. Sharafeddin, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry [199?-2017]. B.S. Baylor Univ; Ph.D. Univ. of Houston.
  • Susan T. Silk, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry. B.Ch.E., City College of New York; Ph.D., New York University.
  • Charles F. Stolzenbach, Instructor in Chemistry. B.Chem Eng., Cooper Union (1931); M.S., Columbia Univ. (1932).[5,44]
  • Maximilian Toch (Chemistry 1887?) Adjunct Professor of Applied Chemistry. Earned one of the first Certificates in Chemistry in 1884; coordinated the 1920 degree in Applied Chemistry. [2] 
  • William J. Wiswesser,* Instructor in Chemistry [during the early 40s]  (b. 1914; d. 12/1989) [5,45]. B.S. (1936), Ph.D., Lehigh Univ. (1974) (Chemistry). Inventor of the Wiswesser line notation (WLN).[46]  Wrote or co-authored more than 50 papers. Also worked at Hercules Research Station (Wilminton, DE); Trojan Powder Co. (Allentown); Willson Products (1945-1963); U.S. Army, Fort Detrick / Edgewood Arsenal (1963-). Numerous awards and honors, including the Herman Skolink Award of the ACS Division of Chemical Information and the U.S. Army Exceptional Service Award. [46]  

The following were found in a list of names within the Records of the Cooper Union Engineering Honor Societies, Mu Alpha Omicron and the Iota Chapter of Tau Beta Pi, 1926-1981.[5]  Theese names have not yet been successfully cross-checked and are therefore not yet included in the list above; as they are confirmed, they are being moved up to the lists above. 

Joseph Allerton, Instructor in Chemistry
Henry A. Birdsall, Instructor in Chemistry
Frank R. Forrester, Instructor in Chemistry 
August Mendizza, Instructor in Chemical Eng
John D. Oathout, Instructor in Chemical Eng
Fred J. Roeben, Instructor in Chemistry

We also have a report that Dr. Behrooz Satvat may have taught in the Chemical Engineering department in the late 1980s, but we do not have verification of that as of yet or of whether he was full-time or part-time. Watch this space!

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the Cooper Union library, which kindly gave me access to Cooper Union's course catalog archives and created an invaluable online archive of Annual Reports. The University of Illinois library system used Google Books to archive the Trustees Reports covering the period of transition from Chemistry to Industrial Chemistry to Chemical Engineering at Cooper Union, which were extremely helpful as well. Mary K. Lynch was kind enough to provide helpful information regarding the Chemical Engineering faculty during the 1980s, and Prof. Andrea Newmark assisted with her own memories and references.

References

[1] http://library.cooper.edu/archive/annual_reports/1859-1860%20Annual%20Report%20Part%201.pdf

[2] See Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 611-612 (June 1, 1920). 

[3] http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cen-v028n022.p1865

[4] http://prabook.com/web/person-view.html?profileId=815528

[5]  http://cooper.libguides.com/FAEngHonorSoc

[6] http://academictree.org/chemistry/peopleinfo.php?pid=52502&expand=bio

[7] The New York Times, Feb. 24, 1975, p. 24. Accessed 1/10/2017.  http://www.nytimes.com/1975/02/24/archives/arthur-radasch-chemist-taught-at-cooper-union.html?_r=0

[8] R. Conot, Thomas A. Edison: A Streak of Luck (Da Capo Press, New York, 1979).

[9] Cooper Union Graduation Program, 1927 (Viewed in the Cooper Union Archives on 1/17/2017).

[10] Victor Gustav Bloede (chemist), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Gustav_Bloede_(chemist). Accessed 9/6/2018.

[11] N.A. Peppas, The First Century of Chemical Engineering, in Distillations, published by the Science History Institute, Fall 2008. https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/magazine/the-first-century-of-chemical-engineering

[12] "In Memoriam: Zikri Ahmed", At Cooper Union, p.34, Summer 2008. See

 https://cooper.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/assets/site/files/ACUSummer08.pdf .

[13] 25th Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art,  May 28th, 1884. Accessed 2/6/2019. 

[14] 24th Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art,  May 26th, 1883. Accessed 2/6/2019. 

[15] E.C. Mack, Peter Cooper: Citizen of New York (Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 1949). See p. 269. 

[16] P. Buckley, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art - Chonology (1997; revised by M. Brooks and C. Salomon, 2008). 

[17] Decisions of the National Labor Relations Board, Case 2-CA-17483,p. 1768 (5 February 1985). 

[18] "Peter Cooper: Jell-O", Lemelson-MIT Program, https://lemelson.mit.edu/resources/peter-cooper . Accessed 4/8/2019.

[19] Note: Edison is included because he only took courses in chemistry at Cooper Union, in order to help him design an improved electrical stylus. See References 8 and 22.

[20] https://www.nytimes.com/1992/07/30/nyregion/albert-nerken-79-an-engineer-industrialist-and-philanthropist.html . Accessed 4/8/2019.

[21] "Victor Gustav Bloede",  Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biogaphies, https://www.immigrantentrepreneurship.org/entry.php?rec=132 . Accessed 4/15/2019.

[22] "Thomas Edison, Chemist: National Historic Chemical Landmark," American Chemical Society, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/thomas-edison.html . Accessed 4/15/2019.

[23] Topper, Robert. "Thomas Edison, Chemistry and Cooper Union" on the Cooper Union website, http://faculty.cooper.edu/topper/general/edison.html . Accessed 4/15/2019.

[24] "Dr. Michael Kasha," Florida State University Institute of Molecular Biophysics, http://biophysics.fsu.edu/michael-kasha/ . Accessed 4/15/2019. 

[25] "Alumni Profile: Jackie Ying, ChE 87," http://cooperalumni.org/alumni-profile-jackie-ying-che87/. Accessed 4/15/2019.

[26] "Henry C. Enders," The New York Times, April 2, 1948. Accessed 4/20/2019. (See below). Notably, Prof. Enders endowed the Enders Fund to support Cooper Union chemistry students wishing to pursue graduate work. 








[27] "John L. Smith", in "The Team that Forever Changed Baseball and America: The 1947 Brooklyn Dodgers," Society for American Baseball Research (2012). See also https://sabr.org/bioproj/person/2e658a3e . 

[28] "Taiwan's Struggle: Voices of the Taiwanese,"edited by Shyu-tu Lee and Jack F. Williams, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD (2014). See p. 53. Prof. Chung is also known as Chang Chan-hung.

[29] See http://library.cooper.edu/tf/mission-vision_1988-2015.pdf. Accessed 5/1/2019.

[30] See https://edelsteincenter.wordpress.com/articles/general-chemistry/. Accessed 5/1/2019. 

[31] See https://www.bumc.bu.edu/biochemistry/profiles/elizabeth-simons/ . Accessed 5/1/2019. 

[32] Nature, Volume 93, 1914. See https://books.google.com/books?id=VSs6AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA685&lpg=PA685&dq=Henry+Hope+chemistry++cooper+union&source=bl&ots=6iAniws9jl&sig=ACfU3U1FdXrGjL40ZlzmO7eSi0KvMrQ_nQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiiqNeL3_rhAhWqc98KHU08CNE4ChDoATAAegQICRAB#v=onepage&q=Henry%20Hope%20chemistry%20%20cooper%20union&f=false. Accessed 5/1/2019.  

[33] See http://umhistory.s3-website.us-east-2.amazonaws.com/Chemical_Engineering_files/*Wilkes%20Chemical%20Engineering%20History%20copy.pdf . Accessed 5/1/2019. 

[34] See http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/bostonglobe/obituary.aspx?n=elizabeth-reiman-simons&pid=192300514 . Accessed 5/1/2019.

[35] See https://prabook.com/web/elizabeth_reiman.simons/1443537 . Accessed 5/1/2019.

[36] 59th Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (July 1, 1918). Accessed via Google Books on 6/9/2019.

[37] 62nd Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (July 1, 1921). Accessed via Google Books on 6/9/2019. 

[38] 65th Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (July 1, 1924). Accessed via Google Books on 6/9/2019. 

[39] 66th and 67th Annual Reports  of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (July 1, 1926). Accessed via Google Books on 6/9/2019.

[40] Since both the Day School and Night School offered only courses in civil, chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineering in 1926, the different names seem less appropriate to the modern reader.

[41] B. Whitman and T. Clayton,"Identification of Unknown Substances," in Punched Cards: Their Applications to Science and Industry, edited by Robert S. Casey & James Whitnet Perry (1951). Accessed via Google Books on 6/9/2019. 

[42] B.L. Lerner and C.S. Grove, Ind. Eng. Chem. 1951, 43, 1, 216-225. See Acknowledgements. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50493a054 .

[43] C.S. Sherman and R. Herzog, Ind. Eng. Chem. 1940, 12,3, 136-137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50143a004 .

[44] Columbia University Catalogue for the Sessions of 1935-1935. Accessed 6/9/2019.

[45] "William J. Wiswesser, 75, Distinguished Berks Chemist," The Morning Call, 12/19/1989. 

[46] "Wiswesser line notation," Wikipedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiswesser_line_notation. Accessed 6/9/2019. 

This page was last updated August 26, 2019 by RQT.